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Colonialism and Imperialism are one of the core foundations of the Atlantic Trade System that occurred between the 14th and 19th centuries. Colonialism is the process of a group of external settlers, in this case settling in Africa and claiming the land for their own. Colonialism is the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country, territory, or people. Colonialism refers to the set of practices and policies implemented by the imperial agents to obtain and maintain control, stability, economic objectives, and social engineering in the constituent polities of the imperial periphery. G. 12) Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial conquest or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. Most subsequent definitions Of imperialism agree that it refers to an ideology or set Of doctrines, that it implies domination that it reflects international affairs, and it involves actions and ideas in support of expansionism and the maintenance of empire. (Peg. 7 Modern Imperialism and Colonialism).
Imperialism and alongside facilitated both the general and the regional effects of the sugar revolution, while at the same time the sugar revolution helped to shape the direction of imperialism and colonialism in new ways. The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of slaves transported to the New World were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, sold by Africans to European slave traders who then transported them to North and South America.
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The numbers were so great that Africans who name by way of the slave trade became the most numerous Old-World immigrants in both North and South America before the late eighteenth century. The Portuguese were the first to engage in the New World slave trade, and others soon followed. Slaves were considered cargo by the ship owners, to be transported to the Americas as quickly and cheaply as possible, there to be sold to labor in coffee, tobacco, cocoa, cotton and sugar plantations, gold and silver mines, rice fields, construction industry, cutting timber for ships, and as house servants.
The Triangular Trade is a route to chive slaves. It got its name from the three routes that formed a triangle. The first route carried fish, lumber, and other goods from New England to the West Indies. In the West Indies they picked up sugar and molasses which is a dark brown syrup product made from sugar cane. This was used to makes rum. From the West Indies merchants carried the rum, along with guns, gunpowder, and tools to West Africa. Here, they traded these items for slaves; they carried the slaves to the West Indies where they were sold.
Traders would take the profits and buy more molasses. The transportation of black Africans to the Americas was known as the Middle passage because it was the middle leg of the Triangular Trade route used by the European merchants. The slaves were treated so harshly that some of them din ‘t make it to the West Indies. Traders were so greedy that they wanted to bring as many slaves as possible. The slaves were chained and crammed together below the deck. There was hardly any sitting room or standing room. The slaves even have fresh air.
The air was so stifling that some suffocated to death. Others tried to starve themselves to death or jump over board. Most died from diseases. Aloud Equation vividly recounts the shock and isolation that he felt during the Middle Passage to Barbados and his fear that the European slavers would eat him. “Soon, to my grief, two of the white men offered me eatables and on my refusing to eat, one of them held me fast by the hands and laid me across the windlass and tied my feet while the other flogged me severely. Had never experienced anything of this kind before.
If I could have gotten over the nettings, would have jumped over the side, but I could not. The crew used to watch very closely those of us who were not chained down to the decks, lest we should leap into the water. I have seen some of these poor African prisoners most severely cut for attempting to do so, and hourly whipped for not eating. (Narrative 3) Slaves were mainly transported to work on plantations and work hard labor all year long. The sugar revolution and the Atlantic Slave Trade led to about 2. 5 million slaves being transported to the new world.
As the result of the Atlantic plantation colonies, sugar had been exported to Europe as a luxury item since the last four decades on the fifteenth century. Sugar was very popular at the time and was used for many other resources such as medicines, sugar sculptures and tea. In 1550, only he rich could afford sugar and it was a luxury. By 1 750, the poorest farmer’s wife took sugar in her tea. With the mass production of imported sugar from the Caribbean, by 1800, 18 lbs. Of sugar per person was being consumed per year. 86) By 1 600 approximately 30,000 African slaves labored in Brazil. More slaves were imported to Brazil than any other locations in the Americas. The particular needs of sugar production help explain in the need for such vast quantities of labor in Brazil. Once planted, the first crop takes between 15 and 18 months to mature, after which the 10;foot stalks are cut back for harvest. African slaves were to work in harsh conditions with little food under the hot beaming sun. The sugar stalks takes nine months to grow back. 91 ) The British had a huge success obtaining huge amounts of profits the Atlantic Slave trade and with the middle passage. Spain obtained gold and a large amount of money and so, everyone wanted a piece. Imperialism was the motivation for more. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, mercantilism was the dominant economic theory guiding most European states. Itself a symptom of the increasing competition in Europe, mercantilism s a set of theories preached that nations competed against each other in the economic as well at the political realm. 79) The waging of war against an enemy had already begun, warfare. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, such theft was authorized and supported by Spain’s rivals as legitimate tool of the state. What Spain saw as blatant piracy, its rivals saw as an acceptable means by which undermine the power of the Spanish Empire. These thieves were known as corsairs or privateers. As corsairs, civilians were granted licenses to plunder any and all Spanish shipping on the seas, opposed in retaliation for Spanish acts of war on land. (peg. 0) These pass events are extremely important because it molded our future. Things would’ve been very different if slaves were never captured and put to work hard labor in the sugar plantations. Europeans would have never produced crops or gain money from them. Sugar wouldn’t have been so popular and maybe consume less. Europe would have not made massive amounts of money and profits they made from the slaves and the cash crops in the Caribbean. If slaves were never taken in the first place, maybe Africa wouldn’t have been in such poverty this modern day.