Mozart Effect Field Research
Parents are desperate to give their children every enhancement that they can. There are areas we will examine to see if the Mozart Effect has evidence to support the claim Of children becoming smarter after listening to it, and to see if the claims made promoted healthy development in children. The frenzy that arouse during the time the Mozart Effect came to life, opened the door to commercials and political personalities to endorse it, but was it all just for the money? We will examine all of these to see what truth is. In the 1 ass’s the Mozart Effect was receiving much attention.
It is thought to elf with early brain development in infants and young children. Francis Rasher and Gordon Shaw along with other colleagues are credited with the research for the Mozart Effect. All of the colleagues attended the University of California at Irvine in the early 1990″s (Coalfield, 1999). The news of their work had an immediate impact on neuroscience and music education. There were also those that had doubts that stirred up a lot of controversy. Their original study was first focused on college students, not infants or young children.
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They found that when these subjects listened to Mozart Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major K 448, their performance on standard IQ spatial reasoning tasks improved (Earaches, Shaw, & KY, 1993). Much to their regret, this benefit lasted only 1 0 minutes. Follow up studies were done that verified their earlier results that temporary short-term spatial reasoning gains just from listening to Mozart rather than other types of music (Earaches, Shaw, & KY, 1995). There was a study done on two groups of kindergarten children whose ages were five and six years old.
The goal was to see if there was difference in the group that listened to Mozart and the group that did not. Young children who listen to music regularly tend to demonstrate better development than those that do not (Matter, 2003). There were a total of 42 children that took part in the experiment. There were 21 in the group that listened to Mozart for a group that listened to Mozart for a total of eight months. The other group known as the control group followed the exact curriculum did not have any music accompanying them.
To evaluate the children’s development, a measurement called, “The preschool and kindergarten children’s performance scale,” established and developed by Al- Baths (2001 ) in Jordan, having the psychometric properties necessary for the study, was used (Matter, 2013). At the conclusion of this experiment the results favored the group of children that were exposed to Mozart. There were statistical differences in social, cognitive and psychical development favoring the children in the experimental group. We can agree that music has a powerful impact that exceeds spoken words.
The experiences that we have is supporting evidence that important brain connections are made during the first three years of a child’s life. Cognitive development is the ability to think ND reason. Music provides a child the chance to practice patterns, math and thinking skills. We will discuss some of the developmental limits in the following paragraphs. Counting is used in many of the songs very young children learn. Children learn as they repeat the same things over and over, it is a certain rhythm that becomes easier for them to remember the names and the order in which they come.
Patterns and sequence can be found in every piece of music because they are built into the melody or lyric. According to research, critical early math and early reading is developed through earning patterns and sequence. Songs like Old McDonald Had a Farm and Farmer in the Dale are just a few examples of songs children learn to decipher sequences in music. Even babies as young as eight months have shown recognition of a familiar piece of music after a NV’0 week delay (lair & Polka, 2006).
Young babies that are exposed to consistent experiences by hearing the same song at the same time of day or night. This method allows babies to remember and link the experience to that particular of music. Phonic awareness is associated with how well a child can recognize, hear and SE different sounds. Research shows that children who are able to distinguish different sounds and phonemes are more likely to develop stronger literacy skills over time (Eerie et al. 2001). Discrimination can be learned through the experiment of different kinds of music and instruments.
Through the experience of instrument and sound they are able to understand the difference in pitch, tone, timbre and volume. Through pretend play and symbolic play children are able to learn one object can represent another object. This can be a huge leap I building thinking skills. Receptive language an be seen in listening to music. Music does not need words to express feelings or images (Parisian, 2010). When a child hears an orchestra play a recording of a popular circus melody the child will begin to identify the animals.
The Mozart Effect interested parents because they believed it was simple way for them to increase their child’s IQ. Entrepreneurs were motivated by easy profits because of the book called “Mozart Effect” written by Don Campbell. There is very little merit that proves that listening to Mozart’ music increases the IQ of children. Using the name Mozart Effect as trademark in infomercials for his book, discs and cassettes was a way to get the news out to mainstream America. Mr.. Campbell gained a lot of fame and fortune through speaking engagement, tape sells and promotion by the media.
The media created the illusion that listening to Mozart music will somehow increase spatial intelligence, concentration and memory and enhance right brain creativity activity. These were some of the promises that were used to promote the sale of Mozart Effect CDC. This information leads me to believe that the Mozart Effect is not at all what it claimed to be. It is true that all styles of music activates the auditory cortex (this is the area of the brain that processes sound) and often times triggers parts of the brain that are connected to our emotions.
There are other studies that have found there is no statistically significant “Mozart Effect”. It is disappointing that the media and commercial ventures have used unverified studies to promote the sale of a product to the public. All of the false claims stating that Mozart music increases one’s intelligence have become so prevalent that the truth of the matter has become hopelessly obscured. This is a disservice to all of the legitimate scientist, music therapists, and the overall public (Earaches, 1993).
After researching the Mozart Effect, and the impact that it has on the overall public, creditable scientist, and musical therapist, it is my belief that the PAP Code of Ethics has been violated. The American Psychological Association (PAP) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Beer, 2010) is set forth to enforce rules Of conduct as psychologists that holds them at a higher standard. The Ethics Code only applies to psychologists’ activities that re a part of their scientific, educational or professional roles as psychologists (Beer, 2010).
The sale of CDC’, books and infomercials for gain at the expense of parents believing that these materials would enhance their child’s IQ was misleading and untrue. The PAP Ethics Code that were violated are as follows: Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility I felt that this code was violated because within the wording of it the psychologist is supposed to uphold all professional standards of conduct, accept appropriate responsibility for their behavior and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm.
The responsibility as a psychologist was not held to the standard that is require because the desire to sell a product and make money was in the forefront. The sales of these products sky-rocketed at the expense of individuals who believed that everything associated with the Mozart Effect would make their child smart when in reality it was not completely true. The second Ethics Code that was violate is Principle C: Integrity This code states that psychologist seek to promote accuracy, honesty and truthfulness in the science, teaching and practice of psychology.
One part of this really sticks out to me that has been committed and that is psychologist do not steal, cheat or engage in fraud, or intentional misrepresentation of fact (Beer, 2010). The infomercials, books and Cad’s promoted information that was not completely true along with many holes in it. The research was not completely credible. The research that has been done of the Mozart Effect was once popular because parents in most cases want the very best for their children. Listening to Mozart was supposed to be the one thing that was supposed to have been searched and completely credible, but it was not.