Introduction to Ethics
All actions are motivated by desires we seek our own happiness, therefore our desires seek happiness not selfishness. Ethical egoism makes people put more importance on themselves than others, it’s trying to be helpful, and it seems that the argument goes about it in a very selfish way. I ought to be concerned about other only to the extent that this also contributes to my own interest.
What I think about this option
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I believe that greatness cannot be achieved by looking out for the interests of the entire group. Even though on average humans will get the better for themselves by looking out for the greater good, we will never see anything that is a work of genius. It is necessary and sufficient for an action to be rational, that it maximise the satisfaction of one’s preference. Since it may be rational for me to make an uncompensated sacrifice for the sake of others. Giving to charity it’s not rational given my preference. because it maximise happiness.
Ayn Rand believes that a man should not sacrifice himself for other and should not sacrifice other for himself. Every man’s moral duty is to archive happiness, not sacrifice his own welfare and happiness for those of someone else .Of all living creatures, ethics only applies to man because he has the ability to make choice on valuable and invaluable goals. Primary and natural goal of any living creatures is to protect itself.
Comparable, Ethical theory and utilitarianism both focus its analysis on whether the motives action it’s right or wrong. They differ where their acts are directed.
Incomparable, in utilitarianism most action may be that which harms the individual agent but maximizes the positive impact for most people, placing the emphasis on the whole as opposed to individual. Deontology deals with intention and motives and focuses mainly on whether an act is right or wrong, egoism focuses mainly on self-interest while utilitarianism focus only on results and effects of type of actions. Individual has a greater value than others, it is ethical to act in one’s own self-interest even if it may harm others.