# History of Physics

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What was Thales known for?

Birth of scientific thought (away from mythical thinking)

Birth of scientific thought (away from mythical thinking)

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What was Democritus known for?

Matter is made up of atoma (atoms)

Matter is made up of atoma (atoms)

What is Aristotle known for?

Systematic approach to science

Systematic approach to science

What was Archimedes known for?

Relationship between buoyancy and weight of displaced fluid (crown story = finding density of gold)

What was Roger Bacon known for?

Advocate of the experimental method

Advocate of the experimental method

What was William Gilbert known for?

Magnets (producing + strengthening) and Earth is a giant magnet (from spherical loadstone)

Magnets (producing + strengthening) and Earth is a giant magnet (from spherical loadstone)

What was Francis Bacon known for?

Established + Popularized an effective method for scientific questioning (roused to action against church’s speculative philosophies)

Established + Popularized an effective method for scientific questioning (roused to action against church’s speculative philosophies)

What was Willebrord Snell known for?

law of refraction (Descartes also credited in “Descartes law”)

What was Galileo Galilei known for?

Light objects fall as fast as heavier ones + force not necessary to keep an object in motion

Light objects fall as fast as heavier ones + force not necessary to keep an object in motion

What was René Descartes known for?

Law of reflection (discovered through a rainbow, “I think therefore I am”)

What was Blaise Pascal known for?

Relationship between applied pressure and pressure within liquid (Pascal’s law: p (pressure) = po (applied pressure) + pgh (gravitational constant: 9.8m/s^2)

What was Robert Hooke known for?

Relationship between force applied to a string and the resulting displacement (Hooke’s Law: F = kx)

What was Isaac Newton known for?

Three fundamental laws of motion (F = Gm1m2/r2, r = distance, G = gravity)

Three fundamental laws of motion (F = Gm1m2/r2, r = distance, G = gravity)

What are the three fundamental laws of motion?

1. Objects at rest stay at rest

2. Stays in motion

3. Equal force when one object acts on second object

1. Objects at rest stay at rest

2. Stays in motion

3. Equal force when one object acts on second object

What was Stephen Gray known for?

– electricity can flow (first noticed through stick from glass tube, then connected it to ivory ball and the ball had similar properties as the glass tube)

– ivory ball = conductor, keeping it away from ground = insulator

What was Benjamin Franklin known for?

Lightning is an electrical discharge

Lightning is an electrical discharge

What was Mikhail Lomonsov known for?

Conservation of matter

Conservation of matter

What was Roger Boscovich known for?

Atomic theory w/ Newton mechanics (atoms = centers of force + this force varies in proportion to distance) [note: this also inspired scientists to develop a unified field theory]

Atomic theory w/ Newton mechanics (atoms = centers of force + this force varies in proportion to distance) [note: this also inspired scientists to develop a unified field theory]

What was John Michell known for?

studied magnetism (magnetic induction) + built tool to determine gravitational constant (torsion balance)

studied magnetism (magnetic induction) + built tool to determine gravitational constant (torsion balance)

What was Henry Cavendish known for?

Determined the value of Newton’s gravitational constant

Determined the value of Newton’s gravitational constant

What was Charles Coulomb known for?

Established experimentally the nature of the force between two charges (also known for coulomb “C” unit)

Established experimentally the nature of the force between two charges (also known for coulomb “C” unit)

What was Luigi Galvani known for?

Muscle + Nerve cells produce electricity

Muscle + Nerve cells produce electricity

What was Alessandro Volta known for?

Forerunner for the modern battery (called the voltaic pile, had a continuous current of low intensity)

What was Ernst Chladni known for?

Various modes of vibration in a mechanical surface

Various modes of vibration in a mechanical surface

What was André Ampère known for?

Found the field of electromagnetism

Found the field of electromagnetism

What was Friedrich Gauss known for?

Developed alternative formulation to Coulomb’s law of the relationship between electric charge and electric field (expressed this in Gauss’ law)

What’s Hans Ørsted known for?

The current in a wire can produce magnet effects (found on accident during demonstration,. when electric current was switched on, compass needle moved -> electricity + magnetism = related)

What’s Georg Ohm known for?

Discovered current flow is proportional to potential difference and inversely proportional to resistance (Georg Ohm’s law: I = V/R)

Discovered current flow is proportional to potential difference and inversely proportional to resistance (Georg Ohm’s law: I = V/R)

What was Michael Faraday known for?

Discovered electromagnetic induction

Discovered electromagnetic induction

What was Sadi (Nicholas) Carnot known for?

Found field of thermodynamics

Found field of thermodynamics

When was Physics established?

During the scientific revolution, 16th-17th century (deviation from natural philosophy)

During the scientific revolution, 16th-17th century (deviation from natural philosophy)

What are the four natural forces?

Strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromagnetic and gravitational

Strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromagnetic and gravitational

What are the four concepts to create a unified theory of the four natural forces?

Chromodynamics, electroweak theory, standard model, string theory

Chromodynamics, electroweak theory, standard model, string theory

What is Physics?

The study of matter, energy, and the relation between the two

The study of matter, energy, and the relation between the two

What are the two divisions if Physics?

Classical and Modern

Classical and Modern

What are the properties of classical physics?

Mechanics, sound, optics, heat, electricity + magnetism (EM)

Mechanics, sound, optics, heat, electricity + magnetism (EM)

Describe Mechanics in classical physics.

bodies acted on forces + bodies in motion

What is Mechanics divided into (in classical physics)?

Statics (study of forces at rest) and Dynamics (study of forces in motion)

What is dynamics (of classical mechanisms) divided into?

Kinematics (without consideration of masses in forces) and kinetics (opposite)

What are other divisions of mechanics?

Hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, and pneumatic (containing or operated by air or gas under pressure)

What is sound in Classical Physics?

longitudinal pressure vibrations (traveling through air, water, or any other medium)

longitudinal pressure vibrations (traveling through air, water, or any other medium)

What is Ultrasonics?

Study of sound waves beyond human hearing

Study of sound waves beyond human hearing

What does optics deal with?

Light and vision (generation, multiplication, and detection)

Light and vision (generation, multiplication, and detection)

What are the two divisions of Optics?

Geometric (ray) and Physical (wave)

Geometric (ray) and Physical (wave)

What makes Physical (wave) optics different from Geometric (ray) optics?

Wave optics involve the interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomenon not associated with rays

Wave optics involve the interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomenon not associated with rays

What is thermodynamics?

The study of the relationship between heat, work, and energy

The study of the relationship between heat, work, and energy

An electrical current gives rise to a _______ and a changing magnetic fields induces an _______.

1. Magnetic field 2. Electric current

1. Magnetic field 2. Electric current

What are the three components of EM?

1. Electrostatics (electric charges at rest)

2. Electrodynamics (moving charges)

3. Magnetostatics (magnetic poles at rest)

1. Electrostatics (electric charges at rest)

2. Electrodynamics (moving charges)

3. Magnetostatics (magnetic poles at rest)

What is Modern Physics concerned with?

the behavior of matter and energy under extreme editions or on a very large/small scale

the behavior of matter and energy under extreme editions or on a very large/small scale

What are some categories of Modern Physics?

– atomic, nuclear and molecular physics

– elementary particle physics

– cryogenics physics

– solid-state physics

– plasma physics

– quantum theory

– relativity

– atomic, nuclear and molecular physics

– elementary particle physics

– cryogenics physics

– solid-state physics

– plasma physics

– quantum theory

– relativity

What is atomic physics?

the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus

the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus

What is Nuclear Physics concerned with?

Nucleus; protons + neutrons (of atom)

Nucleus; protons + neutrons (of atom)

What is Molecular Physics the study of?

physical properties of molecules + chemical bonds between atoms that bind them

physical properties of molecules + chemical bonds between atoms that bind them

What is Nanotechnology?

science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers

science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers

What is elementary particle physics concerned with?

the most basic units of matter

the most basic units of matter

What are the two approaches to a uniform quantum field theory?

standard model + string theory

standard model + string theory

What is the Standard Model?

– theory of fundamental particles and how they interact

– includes strong interactions (quantum chromodynamics) + theory of weak and electromagnetic interaction (electroweak theory)

What is Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)?

quarks + gluons = hadrons (protons and neutrons)

quarks + gluons = hadrons (protons and neutrons)

What does electroweak theories introduce?

W and Z bosons as carrier particles of weak processes + photons as mediators to electromagnetic interactions

W and Z bosons as carrier particles of weak processes + photons as mediators to electromagnetic interactions

What are the two classes of particles of the Standard Model?

bosons (particles that transmit forces ) + fermions (particles that make up matter)

How much particle spin do bosons have?

0 or 1

0 or 1

How much particle spin does fermions have?

1/2

1/2

What are the first six fermions particles known as (1 word)?

leptons (one fermion is an electron)

leptons (one fermion is an electron)

What does the standard model account for?

all natural forces but gravity

What is String Theory?

aims to explain all types of observed elementary particles using quantum states of one-dimensional objects called strings

aims to explain all types of observed elementary particles using quantum states of one-dimensional objects called strings

What is supersymmetry?

symmetry between forces (boson) and matter (fermion)

symmetry between forces (boson) and matter (fermion)

What is Cryogenics?

science + tech at very low temps (below 150 K)

What can occur in Cryogenics (low temp science)?

quantum effects: superconductivity + superfluidity

quantum effects: superconductivity + superfluidity

What is superconductivity?

phenomena in materials at low temps because:

absence of electrical resistance + exclusion of an interior magnetic field

What is superfluidity?

state of matter characterized by the complete absence of viscosity (stickiness)

What is solid-state physics?

study of solids, mostly on crystals (they have electrical, magnetic, optical, and mechanical properties)

study of solids, mostly on crystals (they have electrical, magnetic, optical, and mechanical properties)

What is plasma physics?

– study of plasma: an electrically neutral, highly ionized gas composed of ions, electrons, and neutral particles

– extremely conductive because of neutrality

– study of plasma: an electrically neutral, highly ionized gas composed of ions, electrons, and neutral particles

– extremely conductive because of neutrality

What is Quantum Theory?

– noncontinuous nature of phenomena at atomic or subatomic level

– so small they can’t be described in classical terms

– noncontinuous nature of phenomena at atomic or subatomic level

– so small they can’t be described in classical terms

What is the Uncertainty principle?

(by Heisenberg)

find particle in a small region = momentum uncertain

measure momentum = position uncertain

narrower probability = wider momentum

(by Heisenberg)

find particle in a small region = momentum uncertain

measure momentum = position uncertain

narrower probability = wider momentum

What is Quantum electrodynamics?

(QED) a quantum field theory that deals with the electromagnetic field and its interaction with electrically charged particles (mathematical, uncertainty principle)

(QED) a quantum field theory that deals with the electromagnetic field and its interaction with electrically charged particles (mathematical, uncertainty principle)

What is the special theory of relativity?

accepted physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time

accepted physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time

What is the general theory of relativity?

unifies: special relativity, Newton’s law of universal gravitation, gravitational acceleration can be described by the curvature of space and time

How did Thales explain earthquakes?

The Earth floats on water + earthquakes comes from rocking of Earth

The Earth floats on water + earthquakes comes from rocking of Earth

What was Thales known to do with triangles?

– familiar with right and similar triangles

– rise and run of a slope

– used 45 degree angle shadow to measure pyramid

– familiar with right and similar triangles

– rise and run of a slope

– used 45 degree angle shadow to measure pyramid

What are some of Thales geometric discoveries?

– circle bisected by its diameter

– isosceles triangle base angles are equal

– vertical angles are equal to each other of intersecting lines

– circle bisected by its diameter

– isosceles triangle base angles are equal

– vertical angles are equal to each other of intersecting lines

What’s Thales’ Theorem?

A, B, and C are points in a on a circle, where AC is diameter, ABC is a right angle

What were some properties of Democritus’ atom?

– human soul has atoma (simular to fire atoma)

– senses (smell, taste, vision, etc.)

– size, shape, weight (ex: water=round, solid=small + pointy)

– they have hooks to attach each other

– human soul has atoma (simular to fire atoma)

– senses (smell, taste, vision, etc.)

– size, shape, weight (ex: water=round, solid=small + pointy)

– they have hooks to attach each other

What was Democritus’ mathematical achievement?

cone or pyramid 1/3 the volume of a cylinder or prism

cone or pyramid 1/3 the volume of a cylinder or prism

What was Democritus’ astronomical achievement?

celestial body = distant stars and perhaps other worlds

celestial body = distant stars and perhaps other worlds

What did Aristotle believe the universe was divided into?

two parts: terrestrial + celestial (heavens)

two parts: terrestrial + celestial (heavens)

What did Aristotle believe the Realm of Earth was made up of?

Four Substances: earth, fire, air, water (quintessence for celestial)

Four Substances: earth, fire, air, water (quintessence for celestial)

What did Aristotle believe about an object’s motion?

natural state of matter = at rest (desire)

natural state of matter = at rest (desire)

What did Aristotle distinguish in motion?

“natural” motion (downwards) vs. “violent” motion (projected)

“natural” motion (downwards) vs. “violent” motion (projected)

How did Archimedes contribute to labour?

created pulley systems (for a ship) and levers

Explain Archimedes’ use of the lever.

ratio of effort applied = inverse ratio of the distances of the effort + load from the fulcrum of lever

What did Archimedes’ invent to drain water?

Archimedes’ screw

What were some of the concept’s contained in Roger Bacon’s “Opus Majus”?

– mathematics

– optics

– alchemy

– gunpowder manufacturing

– position + size of celestial bodies

– mathematics

– optics

– alchemy

– gunpowder manufacturing

– position + size of celestial bodies

What were some inventions Roger Bacon anticipated in his book “Opus Majus”?

microscope, telescope, specs, flying machines, hydraulics, steam ship (invented magnifying glass)

microscope, telescope, specs, flying machines, hydraulics, steam ship (invented magnifying glass)

What does Roger Bacon consider about optics in his book “Opus Majus”?

light, distance, position + size, direct vision, reflected vision, refraction, mirrors, lenses

light, distance, position + size, direct vision, reflected vision, refraction, mirrors, lenses

What did William Gilbert not believe about Magnetism?

Magnetism is not electricity

Magnetism is not electricity

What word did William Gilbert coin and from what?

electricity (from static electricity off of amber)

electricity (from static electricity off of amber)

When do objects lose their magnetism according to William Gilbert?

when a material was heated

when a material was heated

What did Galileo Galilei discover mathematically about projectiles?

trajectory = porabola

trajectory = porabola

What were Descartes’ mathematical achievements?

– basis of Newton’s Calculus (infinitesimal calculus + tangent)

– Cartesian Coordinate System

– Analytical Geometry (bridge between algebra + geometry)

– exponential notation

What areas of research did Blaise Pascal discover?

1. projective geometry

2. probability theory (development of modern economics and social science)

1. projective geometry

2. probability theory (development of modern economics and social science)

What did Blaise Pascal invent

Pascaline (first calculator/computer)

Pascaline (first calculator/computer)

What’s Blaise Pascal’s name known for?

– SI unit for pressure (N/m2)

– programming language

– SI unit for pressure (N/m2)

– programming language

What are Charles du Fay’s two types of electricity?

+ positive: produced by glass (vitreous)

– negative: produced by resin (resinous)

+ positive: produced by glass (vitreous)

– negative: produced by resin (resinous)

What was Charles du Fay known for?

discovered 2 types of electricity: positive and negative (coined by William Watson)

discovered 2 types of electricity: positive and negative (coined by William Watson)

What did Charles du Fay discover about positive and negative electricity?

unlike-charged = attract

like-charged = repel

unlike-charged = attract

like-charged = repel

How did Charles du Fay prove positive and negative charges repel each other?

electroscope

What are other electrical achievements by Charles du Fay?

– all bodies can electrically charged by heating and rubbing (except metals + soft/liquid bodies)

– all bodies can be charged through induction

– all bodies can electrically charged by heating and rubbing (except metals + soft/liquid bodies)

– all bodies can be charged through induction

What did Benjamin Franklin discover about lightning (other than discharge)?

– law of conservation of charge

– electricity prefers pointed over rounded -> lightning rod

What did Lomonosov create for gravity?

a mechanical explanation for it

a mechanical explanation for it

What did Lomonosov discover about motion?

heat is a form of motion -> kinetic theory of gases

heat is a form of motion -> kinetic theory of gases

What is John Michell father of?

seismology (the study of earthquakes) after study of connection between volcanoes and earthquakes

seismology (the study of earthquakes) after study of connection between volcanoes and earthquakes

What did John Michell discover in space?

object massive enough to prevent light from escaping (a.k.a., the black hole)

object massive enough to prevent light from escaping (a.k.a., the black hole)

What did Cavendish discover with specific gravity?

Hydrogen “inflammable air”

Hydrogen “inflammable air”

How did Cavendish contribute to the understanding of our atmosphere?

discovered accurate percentages of nitrogen (79.1%) oxygen (20.8%)

discovered accurate percentages of nitrogen (79.1%) oxygen (20.8%)

How did Henry Cavendish discover Newton’s gravitational constant?

the us of the torsion balance (created by John Michell). factors such as distance moved (recorded by mirror), force between the m and m’ (r) help determine this [watch video in link above]

How did Charles Coulomb use the torsion balance?

– he used it to investigate strengths of materials + determined the forces that affect objects on the beam

– contributed to the field of structural mechanics

– he used it to investigate strengths of materials + determined the forces that affect objects on the beam

– contributed to the field of structural mechanics

What did Charles Coulomb use to define the force between two charges?

Coulomb’s law (mathematical expression seen above)

How did Luigi Galvani discover electricity was produced in muscle and nerve cells?

investigated actions of electricity on the muscles of frogs (one metal placed on nerve and other on muscle) -> contraction occurred -> discovered bioelectricity

investigated actions of electricity on the muscles of frogs (one metal placed on nerve and other on muscle) -> contraction occurred -> discovered bioelectricity

What term was coined in Galvani’s name?

galvanism (by Volta) for a direct current produced by chemical action

galvanism (by Volta) for a direct current produced by chemical action

What law did Volta discover?

Volta’s law of capacitance: developed separate means to study both electrical potential V and charge Q, and discovered that for a given object they are proportional (unit of electrical potential called the volt)

What did Volta discover with animal experiments in electricity?

frog’s leg is a conductor + detector of electricity -> replaced with salt-water paper = similar properties of frog’s leg

frog’s leg is a conductor + detector of electricity -> replaced with salt-water paper = similar properties of frog’s leg

What field of Physics did Ernst Chladni discover?

acoustics (sound + sound waves)

acoustics (sound + sound waves)

How was Ernst Chladni able to spot nodal regions?

he bowed sand covered plates until it reached resonance (then a pattern forms, showing the nodal regions [a point, line, or region in a standing wave at which there is relatively little or no vibration])

nodal regions = sand

What did Chladni discover from his experiments with plates?

Chladni’s law: an algebraic relation for approximating the modal frequencies of the fluctuation of plates + other bodies

What was created in honor of Andre Ampere?

The unit Ampere (A) [unit of electric current] = coulomb/second

The unit Ampere (A) [unit of electric current] = coulomb/second

What did Andre Ampere formulate?

a combined theory of electricity + magnetism, electric currents = source of all magnetism -> electromagnetism

a combined theory of electricity + magnetism, electric currents = source of all magnetism -> electromagnetism

When is an magnetic field generated?

two parallel wires are charged with electricity (Andre Ampere discovered this through the astatic needle, a precursor to the galvanometer)

two parallel wires are charged with electricity (Andre Ampere discovered this through the astatic needle, a precursor to the galvanometer)

What CGS unit is named after Orsted?

unit of magnetic induction (oersted)

unit of magnetic induction (oersted)

What unit was named in Georg Ohm’s honor?

the ohm (unit of electrical resistance)

Do all materials apply to Ohm’s law?

ohmic or linear conductor = applied

nonohmic or nonlinear = does no apply

ohmic or linear conductor = applied

nonohmic or nonlinear = does no apply

What did Micheal Faraday discover?

– electromagnetic rotation (principle for the electric motor)

– electromagnetic induction (the principle behind the electric transformer + generator -> great industry use)

– electromagnetic rotation (principle for the electric motor)

– electromagnetic induction (the principle behind the electric transformer + generator -> great industry use)

What’s Faraday’s law?

induction of an electric field by changing magnetic flux

induction of an electric field by changing magnetic flux

What is induction?

the process by which a body having electric or magnetic properties produces magnetism, an electric charge, or an electromotive force in a neighboring body without contact

the process by which a body having electric or magnetic properties produces magnetism, an electric charge, or an electromotive force in a neighboring body without contact

What words did Faraday coin?

electrode, electrolyte, anode, cathode, and ion

electrode, electrolyte, anode, cathode, and ion

What was different about Faraday’s view of electricity?

electricity was a form of force that passed from particle to particle of matter rather than a fluid

electricity was a form of force that passed from particle to particle of matter rather than a fluid

Why was the Faraday effect well known?

it showed light affected by magnetic force

it showed light affected by magnetic force

What’s significant about the second law of thermodynamics?

heat cannot spontaneously flow from a material at lower temp to a material at higher temp -> not all energy can be used (shown in the carnot cycle)

What were some of William Gilbert’s other achievements?

– studied static electricity using amber

– electricity + magnetism not the same

– studied static electricity using amber

– electricity + magnetism not the same

What did Willebrord Snell do with measurement?

– found the dimensions of the Earth through triangulation -> foundation of geodesy: science of measuring size, shape, gravity field of earth

– found the dimensions of the Earth through triangulation -> foundation of geodesy: science of measuring size, shape, gravity field of earth

What were Snell’s mathematical achievements?

– improved classical method of calculating Pi by polygons

– discovered Snell’s law (for refraction)

– discovered the law of sines

– improved classical method of calculating Pi by polygons

– discovered Snell’s law (for refraction)

– discovered the law of sines